1. Drive Up
McMillan says, “It drives up costs for employers.”
Pushes them up, forces them to increase.
‘Bad weather can drive up the price for fresh food,’ for example, or ‘Instability in the financial markets drove up the Yen against the Dollar.’
2. Healthcare Claim
McMillan says, “It can lead to increased absenteeism, serious illness, injury and healthcare claims.”
Now here’s a word that’s often used differently in English and Japanese. Where in Japanese you’d often say ‘claim’, in English we’d say ‘complaint’.
Like ‘I filed a complaint with the personnel department.’ Or ‘I submitted a complaint to the manufacturer.’
We wouldn’t say claim in that situation.
Regarding insurance policies and such, a claim is a request for payment; that coverage be provided in keeping with the policy.
Like ‘She filed a claim with the insurance company after her house was robbed.’
3. Be Expressed As
Ueda says, “It’s also number one when such costs are expressed as a percentage of gross domestic product.”
Presented in a certain form, conveyed in a certain form.
Like, ‘This app tells you how much to save, expressed as a percentage of your salary.’ Or ‘This report lists our costs expressed as a percentage of total sales.’
4. Rank in the Bottom Quartile
Ueda says, “But the US ranks in the bottom quartile for life expectancy and infant mortality.”
When scores are divided into four groups, you have quartiles.
I searched online and found things like, ‘This mutual fund is in the top quartile for investment returns.’ So, it’s among the top 25% mutual funds in terms of returns on investments.
A complaint is a statement in which you express your dissatisfaction with a particular situation. [+ about] ⇒ There’s been a record number of complaints about the standard of service on Britain’s railways. ⇒ People have been reluctant to make formal complaints to the police. ⇒ If you feel you have any cause for complaint about the service you should write to the Hospital Administrator.
A claim is a demand for something that you think you have a right to. [+ to] ⇒ Rival claims to Macedonian territory caused conflict in the Balkans.
4. rank, top, bottomも使いこなせるようになるべき重要な語句です。
参照した辞書はCollins Free Online Dictionaryです。